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Until Jackie Robinson was hired by the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1946, a gentlemen`s agreement ensured that African-American players were excluded from organized baseball. [18] Gentlemen`s agreements have come to regulate international activities such as the coordination of monetary or trade policy. [13] According to Edmund Osmasczyk in the United Nations Encyclopedia and International Agreements, it is also defined as „an international term for an oral and unwritten but fully valid agreement.“ [14] This type of agreement may allow a nation to circumvent national legal requirements to enter into a formal contract[13] or it may be useful for a government to want to enter into a secret agreement that does not engage the next government. [15] According to another author, all international agreements are gentlemen`s agreements because, just before the war, they are all unenforceable. [15] Osmaczyk noted that there was a difference between gentlemen`s open agreements and secret diplomatic agreements. [14] In the United States, in 1890, the prohibition of gentlemen`s agreements was introduced in interstate trade relations because the secrecy of these agreements was beyond anyone`s control. [14] A gentlemen`s agreement or gentleman`s agreement is an informal and non-binding agreement between two or more parties. It is usually oral, but it can be written or simply understood as part of a tacit agreement by convention or by mutually beneficial label. The essence of a gentlemen`s agreement is that it depends on the honour of the parties for its achievement, rather than being enforceable in one way or another. It differs from a legal agreement or a contract. A report by the U.S.

House of Representatives detailing its United States Steel Corporation investigation stated that in the 1890s there were two general types of associations or bulk consolidations between steel and ferrous interests in which different groups owned ownership, as well as a high degree of independence: the „pool“ and the „Gentleman`s Agreement.“ [5] The latter type lacked a formal organisation to regulate production or prices or forfeiture rules in the event of infringement. [5] The effectiveness of the agreement relied on members to meet informal commitments. [5] Under English contract law, an agreement, in order to be binding, must be aimed at establishing legal relations; but in commercial transactions (i.e. agreements that do not exist between family members or friends), there is a legal presumption of „intent to establish legal relations“. In the 1925 case of Rose and Frank Co. v. JR Crompton – Bros Ltd., however, the House of Lords found that the phrase “ „This regulation is not …